Today, we discuss the 5 most profitable crops to grow in 2022 or high good cash crops to grow in India. Farming is the most booming sector across the world. India is the second-largest agricultural country in the world. Agriculture is a primary activity for Indians, in which people produce crops, food items, raw materials and many other things. Here are the 5 most profitable crops to grow in India.
1. Lavender Farming
Lavender is a medicinal plant, due to which its plant is more beneficial. Apart from decoration, you can use the flowers that grow on lavender plants in food. Its flowers produce aroma in many types of dishes and sweets. Its flowers are sweet, due to which you can use it to increase the sweetness. You can obtain oil from its plants, to make perfumes, soaps and cosmetics besides food. Its plants are also beneficial in the treatment of many types of diseases.
Lavender flowers are red, purple, blue and black in appearance, and the plant is two to three feet tall. The place of origin of its plants is the continent of Asia. Its fully grown plant gives yield for ten years. Farmer brothers are also earning more profit by cultivating lavender. If you are also planning to develop lavender, then in this article, you will know how to grow lavender.
Suitable Soil, Climate and Temperature
Lavender cultivation requires sandy soil rich in organic matter. You can grow this plant in hilly, plain and sandy land. You can obtain more oil from the plants by cultivating lavender in slightly alkaline soil. The P.H. value must be between 7 to 8. Lavender plants have a Mediterranean climate. Its plants grow well in cold climates. Its plants need open air space, which cannot grow properly in high temperatures. The average rainfall is suitable for its cultivation. They require a 12 to 15-degree temperature at the time of seed germination. The plant needs 20 to 22-degree temperature for its development. Its plants can tolerate a maximum temperature of 30 degrees and a minimum of 10 degrees.
Field preparation and fertilizer
A fully grown lavender plant is ready to produce for many years. Therefore, clean the field correctly and prepare it well. For this, prepare the land by deep ploughing and remove the old crop residues from the field. After ploughing, leave the field open for some time, due to which the sunlight gets appropriately in the soil of the area. Apply 15 to 20 carts of cow dung manure per hectare in the field. After ploughing the field properly, mix the waste of cow dung in the soil.
After mixing the manure in the soil, pulverise the field by applying water. When the ground of the area starts appearing dry from above, during that time, use a rotavator and plough the field two to three diagonally. Due to this, the soil of the field becomes friable. Level the area by placing a pad in the friable soil. There is no problem with waterlogging in flat land.
If you want to use chemical fertilizers to cultivate lavender, then at the time of the last ploughing of the field, 40 kg phosphorus, 40 kg potash and 20 kg nitrogen have to be sprayed per hectare. Due to chemical quantity, the plants grow well till the next harvest, and the yield is also high.
You can transplant the lavender plants both in seed and in seedlings. But by transplanting the seedlings, the yield starts getting shorter. You can find the plants in the nursery in November and December. Its seeds germinate properly only at a temperature between 12 to 15. Apart from this, you can prepare its plants by the tissue culture method. The branches of one to two-year-old plants are cut and prepare the plants by cutting.
Plants transplanting correct time and method
You can sow its seeds by both seed and cutting methods. But the farmer brothers prefer to plant lavender plants in the form of seedlings. For this, prepare the weeds in the field. Between these meadows, a distance of one to one and a half meters is kept, and plants are planted on the bunds at a distance of 25 to 30 cm. In intensive farming, its plants have to be produced at a distance of 5 cm. About 20 thousand plants can be planted in one hectare of field. Its plants can be planted throughout the year, but it has to be produced in April to get more commercial production. Apart from this, planting is done in regions with high temperatures in the winter season.
Lavender plants require more irrigation. Its initial irrigation is done immediately after transplanting. After this, water has to be given to maintain moisture in the field, but do not give too much water. It increases the risk of disease in the crop.
The natural method is used to control weeds in lavender crops. For this, weeds are removed from the field by weeding the plants. The first hoeing of lavender plants is done after 25 days of transplanting, and the subsequent hoeing is done at an interval of 20 to 30 days. Its plants require only 3 to 4 dolls.
Diseases and Prevention
Lavender is mainly cultivated in India in Jammu and Kashmir, and Ladakh, and there till now, no diseases have been seen in its plants. But in the plains, many insect diseases attack the plants. These insect diseases affect the growth and yield of plants. Organic insecticides or neem oil should be sprayed on the plants to prevent these insect diseases. To save the crop from diseases caused by waterlogging, do not allow water logging in the field. If the area becomes waterlogged, then spray the appropriate amount of Bordeaux mixture on the roots of the plants.
Harvesting, Yield and Benefits
After three years, the lavender plants are fully developed and ready to produce more. When more than 50 per cent of the flowers have come out on its plants, harvest them during that time. Harvest its plants at some height from the ground with a sharp weapon, and the length of the cut branches should not be less than 12 cm. Farmer brothers can earn in many ways by cultivating lavender.
You can earn cash by selling its flowers in the market for decoration and profit by extracting oil from the flowers. The market price of lavender oil is 10 thousand rupees per kg so that farmers can earn more profit than the quantity of oil obtained from its one-time harvesting.
2. Aloe Vera Farming
It is cultivated as a medicinal crop, but it is grown to make beauty products, pickles, vegetables, and juices apart from therapeutic medicines. Aloe Vera is an English name. In Hindi, it is known as Ghritkumari and Gwarpatha. Aloe vera has been cultivated on the earth since ancient times and is used in large quantities to make medicines. At present, Aloe Vera is produced in large quantities.
Many pharmaceutical companies in India buy it. Apart from this, there are also many companies producing cosmetic goods, in which Aloe Vera is in high demand. Because of its market, farmers and brothers are earning good profits by cultivating Aloe Vera in large quantities.
Fertile soil is required for Aloe Vera cultivation. Apart from this, Aloe vera can also be grown in hilly and sandy loam soils. Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Gujarat, and Haryana are where Aloe Vera is cultivated commercially. The P.H. of the land in its cultivation. The value should be up to 8.5.
Before planting the Aloe Vera crop in the field, its field should be well prepared. Roots of aloe vera are found in the depth of 20 to 30 cm inside the ground. But its plants absorb nutrients only from the upper surface of the land. Due to this, you should do deep ploughing of its field: after ploughing, the area is left open like this for some time. After this, two to three slant ploughing is done in the field by applying a rotavator.
After ploughing, about 10 to 15 old cow dung manure should be mixed well in the soil in one acre of land. These plants need an adequate amount of waste for its plants to grow well. You can harvest its plants in a year. Plough the field by leaving the water to maintain moisture in the field. After a few days, the area is ready for planting.
Transplanting Right Time and Method
You can plant aloe vera seeds not in the form of seeds but seedlings. While buying its plants, keep in mind that they should be healthy. The plant should be four months old, with 4 to 5 leaves. One of the specialities of its plants is that you can plant its uproot plants even after months.
Apart from this, the right time and method also matter for the excellent yield of its plants. It is appropriate to plant it at a distance of 15 cm from the ground to get the product of its plants for a longer time. There must be a distance of 60 cm between the aloe vera plants. Planting the plants at a distance makes it easier to harvest the leaves when they are ready. While planting its plants, you should press the roots well with the soil. The month of July is the most suitable for planting aloe vera plants. Because during this, there is a rainy season, its plants get sufficient amounts of moisture, but its cultivation can be done at any time in irrigated places.
Aloe vera plants require more irrigation. Therefore, immediately after planting its plants in the field, you should first do irrigation. Light irrigation should be done to maintain the moisture in its area, but too much water is harmful to its plants. Its plants can grow comfortably even in a lack of water. At the time of irrigation of plants, keep in mind the erosion of soil. In soil erosion, stop it by applying ground at that place. Do not allow water logging in its field during the rainy season. In case of waterlogging, water should be removed from its area.
Diseases and their Prevention
You can see very few diseases in its plants. But sometimes, you can see rot and spot diseases in the leaves of its plants. To prevent this type of disease, spray appropriate Mancozeb, Ridomil and Dithane M-45 on the plants.
Crop Harvesting, Yield and Market Rate
Aloe vera plants are ready for harvesting after eight months of transplanting. If the land is less fertile, it takes 10 to 12 months to prepare its plants. When the leaves of its plants appear fully developed, they should be harvested. After the first harvesting, its plants are ready for the second harvesting after two months. You can plant more than 11,000 plants on its one-acre field, giving you a yield of 20 to 25 tons. The market price of aloe vera is 25 to 30 thousand rupees per ton, due to which farmers can easily earn 4 to 5 lakhs from a one-time crop of aloe vera.
3. Bamboo Farming
Today, farmers in India have many options to earn money from agriculture. These options include using modern technology and the cultivation of improved species. Farmers can make a good profit through new techniques and improved varieties in agriculture. However, with these options, there is a cost in farming. But to reduce the burden of expenses on the farmer, the government is also providing a lot of financial help. Cultivation of varieties with financial support also includes the cultivation of bamboo. Farmers can get good profits through bamboo cultivation. Also, the processing of bamboo will help them to earn extra income. For cultivating bamboo, the government will also help the farmers reduce the cost in other works, including an early plantation. In this way, bamboo farming will become a profitable deal.
Bamboo is one of the beautiful gifts of nature on earth. Bamboo is the most consumed plant on earth. In the forest, bamboo flourishes only under the care of nature. The cultivation of bamboo improves the living conditions of the villagers and tribals. Bamboo processing has become a source of employment and income generation. This is helping a lot in rural development.
Cost and Earnings
Bamboo cultivation can become a source of significant income. Because the consumption of bamboo increases with time, farmers can earn double the profit by processing it. One can earn a profit of about 3 to 3.5 lakh rupees every four years from bamboo cultivation. At the same time, cultivating other crops at the rate of 4 * 4 meters on the bunds will earn about 30 thousand rupees every year. If the farmer himself takes up the processing of the bamboo crop, then the earning rate will increase by 3-5 times.
Soil and Climate
Farmers should first test the soil and contact their nearest Krishi Vigyan Kendra. Choose those varieties of bamboo that are readily available in the market or give maximum benefits. For the cultivation of bamboo, sandy or loamy soil is most favourable. The pH temperature of the earth should also be in the range of 6.5 to 7.5.
Presently the land and Climate of the farmer’s areas and tribal areas of Northeast India and Central India are favourable for bamboo cultivation.
Getting seeds is very important for sowing bamboo. However, this process takes some time. But a good and quality crop can be obtained by sowing bamboo. To get ripe seeds from bamboo, collect bamboo crops by swarming them and clearing the grass from the ground below the produce. After this, collect the seeds that fall on the ground from the bamboo bunch and keep them in a safe place.
For information, let us tell you that the outbreak of rats and squirrels increases in the crop during the ripening of seeds. Therefore, to protect bamboo roots, keep them in a tin box. Do not sow the seeds directly in the nursery; instead, complete the seed treatment before sowing. First, soak the seeds in water for about 8 hours. Healthy roots will settle underwater in this process. First of all, remove the floating bases in the water and throw them away, do not use them for farming. Now treat the healthy seeds obtained from the bottom surface of the water with safe chemical drugs. Due to this, there will be no outbreak of pests and diseases in the crop.
One of the initial and essential tasks is to prepare the nursery for the cultivation of bamboo. To prepare the nursery, first, make a bed of 12X15 meters in the nursery and dig it up to 30 cm deep. Make small beds as per convenience so that irrigation is easy. Now spread rotted manure of cow dung in the beds. Directly sow the treated bamboo seeds properly in the nursery. Apply light irrigation after sowing and also in the nursery. The moisture content of the soil is significant for the germination of the sown seeds. Where on one side, the seeds germinate in 10 days. On the other hand, rhizomes are ready for transplanting in the field after 15-20 days of germination. Plant it in the areas only after the buds emerge in the rhizome of bamboo.
To develop buds in bamboo rhizomes, plant them in polythene bags. Perform the light irrigation of bamboo in polythene bags. Monitor the nursery from the invasion of rats and squirrels while the rhizomes emerge. Before planting bamboo, make arrangements for drainage in the ground or field to avoid water logging in the area. Now spread manure and fertilizers on the land and sprinkle insecticides. Apply light irrigation to the field. Now take out the bamboo seedlings from polythene and plant them in pits of 0.3 X 0.3 X 0.3 meters at a distance of 5 X 5 meters. After transplanting, monitor the plant’s diseases and do irrigation and weeding work in time.
Weeding and Weed management
Pest and disease management is essential after transplanting in a bamboo crop. So keep monitoring the crop for one year after transplanting. Along with this, do weeding and hoeing in the crop every month after transplanting. Regular weeding and hoeing destroy the weeds in the harvest. At the same time, in the second year of transplanting, make a circle of two meters around the plants and do 15-30 cm deep hoeing. However, the bamboo crop is not prone to pests and diseases. But some species are in dire need of good management. Because sometimes fungal infections like black spots can damage bamboo buds. This can also affect the quality of bamboo.
Irrigation and Fertilizer Management
It takes 3 to 4 years for the bamboo crop to use for processing purposes. Usually, harvesting of this variety of bamboo starts in the fourth year. Construct the ponds and overhead tanks near the field for the irrigation system. At the same time, farmers do not need to spend separately for manure and nutrition management in bamboo fields. Instead, the leaves falling from the bamboo take the form of nutritious manure. For good yield, do timely irrigation and soil ploughing around the plant. This will result in the health and quality production of bamboo.
4. Mushroom Farming
Mushroom is a kind of fungous cube. It makes things like vegetables, pickles, and pakoras in food. Many nutrients are present inside the mushroom, which are very beneficial for the human body. Mushroom cultivation has been done globally for thousands of years, but mushroom has been grown in India for three decades already. In our country, mushroom cultivation is being grown mainly commercially in states like Haryana, Uttar Pradesh, Uttarakhand, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, Karnataka and Telangana.
Mushroom Improved Varieties
The Winter season is appropriate for cultivating this variety of mushrooms. It grows in any region of India in the winter season, but in the winter season, the coastal areas are more suitable for its cultivation. This variety of mushrooms takes 45 to 60 days to mature.
This species of milky mushroom grows only in the plains. In this variety of mushrooms, 25 to 30 degrees temperature is suitable when germinating seeds. Apart from this, it requires 30 to 35 temperatures at the time of mushroom fruiting. For this type of crop to be ready, there should be 80 per cent moisture in the air.
White button mushroom
Initially, this variety of mushroom needs 20 to 22-degree temperature to prepare the white button mushroom crop. They need 14 to 18 degrees of temperature during mushroom fruiting. The cultivation is mainly done in the winter season. Its cube needs 80 to 85% air moisture. Its cubes appear white, which are hemispherical in the beginning.
Shiitake Mushroom Variety
You can find this variety of mushrooms extensively in Japan. Its cube shape is hemispherical and you can notice slight redness in them. Its seeds require a temperature of 22 to 27 degrees in the beginning, and during the development of the cube, they need a temperature of 15 to 20 degrees.
Mushroom Cultivation Important Elements
Cultivation of mushrooms requires a dark space. Apart from this, you need many materials, inside which you can grow mushrooms. In mushroom crop, initially, rectangular molds of proper length and height are ready, which look like a box. Mushroom cultivation requires rice husk, straw and other crops. The trash should not get wet in the rain. Cut the garbage with a machine. For which you will also need a straw harvesting machine.
Boil the straw to grow the seeds. Burn the straw in large quantities, which requires two large drums. After this, cool the boiled straw and fill in the sacks, after which plant the seeds in those sacks. Now tie the mouths of these sacks with rope, sackcloth, or polythene. After all these procedures, you must need a sprayer or a large cooler to maintain the moisture in these bores.
Preparation of base material for growing seeds
In mushroom cultivation, use the waste manure to grow the seeds. For this, use the waste residues of agriculture. The length of these agricultural wastes should be up to 8 cm.
Cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin are also present in thiscompost. Rice and maize straw is more suitable than wheat straw. Because cubes are ready more quickly in this straw. Initially, keep the mushrooms in a closed room, but once they come out in cubes, they need at least 6 hours of fresh air. It is necessary to have windows and doors in the rooms where you are growing mushrooms so that the air keeps coming into the rooms.
Apply the polythene well on the slab for transplanting the mushroom seeds. After that, spread a 6-8 inch thick layer of compost. Cover with polythene immediately after sowing. 500-750 GM spawn is sufficient for sowing seeds in the amount of 100 kg of compost manure.
Mushroom harvesting, yield and benefits
Mushroom seeds are ready for giving about 30 to 40 days after transplanting. For its harvesting, break the mushroom stalk by rotating it slightly from near the ground. After that, it is ready to sell in the market. Apart from this, dry some varieties of mushrooms and sell by making their powder.
A cube of mushroom is about 9 cm in height. The market price of mushrooms in 200 to 300 rupees per kg. According to which farmer brothers can earn more profit in less time by cultivating mushrooms and selling them in the form of food or making powder of them at a reasonable price.
5. Geranium Farming
Geranium is an aromatic and herbaceous shrub that is cultivated throughout the year. It is one of the perennial, annual plants. Geranium is produced commercially for its essential oil and is grown for ornamental purposes. This plant is also known as the poor’s rose. The oil extracted from the geranium plant’s leaves, stems, and flowers has many health benefits. In addition, it is used for the manufacture of perfumery products.
Geranium oil is commercially extracted from Pelargonium graveolens of its species Geraniaceae. Geranium is a genus of 420 flowering perennial plants, cranesbills. Talking about the description of the plant of Geranium, the stem of its plant is cylindrical, yellow and green. The leaves of this plant are naturally very fragrant. Its leaves/flowers have a rose-like smell.
The main ingredients of the oil are geraniol and citronellol, and pure geranium oil is almost a perfume in itself and mixes very well with all other fragrances.
Favourable climate and soil
A low moisture climate is suitable for getting a good yield from geranium cultivation. The annual Climate should be 100 to 150 cm. Soil should be sandy, loamy, and light dry for its crop. Additionally, the geranium crop requires a well-draining porous soil rich in organic matter.
Geranium plants are usually prepared by cuttings, as there is no seed setting in these species. To prepare its seedlings, 8-10 cm. Make high beds and add manure to them. After this, 5-7 knotted twigs from September to October after 10-15 cm.
Plant Transplanting and Fertilizers
Irrigate these treated cuttings twice a day in a proper shade environment. And these cuttings will be ready for transplanting in the field after two months of planting in the nursery bed. Treat the rooted cuttings with 0.1% belanate solution and leave a spacing of 60 cm. Plant it immediately in the field at a distance. For its harvesting, 1 acre of land is about 10 thousand and 1 hectare of land is 25 thousand. Along with this, 150 kg of nitrogen, 60 kg of phosphorus and 40 kg of potash should be given.
The irrigation frequency depends on the type of soil, plant growth stage and Climate. Although this crop requires moderate irrigation and heavy rainfall, overwatering will cause stem rot and reduce yield.
Harvest the leaves of this plant after 3-4 months when they become mature. While harvesting them, keep in mind that their colour should not turn yellow, and the leaves should not be raspberry.
The geranium crop reaches the harvesting stage about four months after transplanting in the field.